WHAT IS CARBOHYDRATE- It is the one of the most important macronutrient.
Function- CHO serves as essential function for us,Carbohydrate serve as the body’s preferred energy source and help to fight against fatigue and exhaustion especially from prolonged workout (more than 60 mins). Carbohydrate can be used for energy during anaerobic and aerobic exercise .When carbohydrate is readily available body,body does not break down protein or fat.
Benefits- Healthy Carbs choices in appropriate amount benefits athletic performance,weight management.
STORAGE OF CARBOHYDRATE-Carbohydrates consumed in the diet that are not immediately used for energy are stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen. Approximately 90gms in stored in liver and 150gm glycogen in muscle.This amount of glycogen is stored is increased with physical training and carbohydrate loading.
REQUIREMENT-Carbohydrate requirement is 45 to 65% of total calories. On a average person consume 2000 calories should consume 225 to 325 gms/day or consuming 6 to 10 g/kg of body.
1 gram of carbohydrate=4 calories
Carbohydrate structure- carbohydrates are two categories
1)simple-They are 2 types
b)disaccharides- lactose ,sucrose,maltose
2)complex-They are 2 types
a)oligosaccharides- This types of carbohydrates are (found in fruits and vegetables)
b) polysaccharides-starch,fiber and glycogen are most complex types of carbohydrates
Hormone role in regulation of carbohydrate– Blood glucose regulation are maintained by 2 hormone- insulin and glucagon.Both hormones are produced in pancreas.
- 1)When meal is consumed ,blood glucose rises and insulin is released into blood, Insulin helps body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy.While excess is taken by Insulin to store it in muscles, fat cells, and liver to use later, so excess glucose is stored into fat.
- 2)And when blood glucose decreases glucagon hormone is released from liver to break glycogen to release glucose for energy and when glycogen store is depleted glucagon uses fat for fuel.
MYTHS ABOUT CARBS-
- Everyone knows today’s popular diets,media hyped stories have given a bad reputed image to carbs,Only carbohydrates such as refined sugars and processed foods can pose health and weight issues.Main reason for carbohydrate is considered bad is- That when person consume excess of it,which gets converted into fat.
- Be smart- Not all carbohydrate are equal we need to learn to eat more complex and few simple carbs in our diet.What matter is not just carbohydrate but the glycemic index of carbohydrate,( higher glycemic index higher blood glucose response ,extent of processing ,other food consumed with carbohydrate ( like protein and fat ).
- Extreme low carb diet(under 100gm carbs/day)-Science behind such diet is people who restricts extreme amount of carbohydrates see results quickly on weighing scale. Truth is thier majority of weight loss comes from water. Because when body doesn’t get enough blood glucose,body breaks glycogen for energy and this glycogen requires water for storage.(each gram of glycogen is made of 3-4 hefty grams of water).so when glycogen stores is depleted we lose water. So finally what we lose is water weight(no fat loss). What matters is the rate of energy expenditure, rather than simply the percentage of energy expenditure derived from macronutrient.
SOURCE- ACE nutrition manual