From the moment of conception, a pregnant woman’s body begins to adapt to meet the demands of the developing embryo and to create the most favorable environment for a growing baby.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES- Once a woman becomes pregnant , the hormonal and physiological changes that take place during the course of a typical 40-week pregnancy.Many of the physiological changes of pregnancy are due to a hormonal influx of more than 30 different hormones
BLOOD VOLUME- There is a rapid rise in blood volume at the end of first trimester. First trimester is also responsible for the lightheadedness and dizziness that some women may experience.
HEART RATE-Pregnant women even breathe more deeply and have a slightly increased respiratory rate; this is an attempt by the maternal body to decrease carbon dioxide levels in the developing fetus.
FREQUENT URINATION- growing uterus is located in the perfect position to apply extra pressure on the bladder; therefore, it’s no wonder that frequent bathroom breaks become an annoyance for many women during the later stages of pregnancy.
- nausea and vomiting
- heartburn-causing acid reflux
- an increase in appetite
ANEMIA-Anemia Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in pregnancy. Iron needs markedly increase in pregnancy. Supplements of 2 mg copper and 15 mg zinc per day may be prescribed for women taking iron supplements of more than 30 mg per day.
WEIGHT GAIN-HOW MUCH EXTRA CALORIES( You need about an extra 300 calories to support your developing baby – a little less in the first trimester and more in the third.)Additional foods are required to improve weight gain in pregnancy (10-12 Kg) and birth weight of infants (about 3 Kg).
- Women with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 should gain 25–35 pounds.
- Overweight women (with a BMI of 25.0–29.9) should gain 15–25 pounds.
- Obese women (with a BMI of 30.0 or higher) should gain 11–20 pounds.
FIRST TRIMESTER- The first 3 months mark the time of implantation, organ development and rapid growth along with morning sickness. You don’t need extra energy (calories) until the second and third trimester. You will likely only gain a very small amount of weight or none at all in the first trimester.
SECOND TRIMESTER-This phase is “honeymoon” of pregnancy, the second trimester makes us free from morning sickness makes us feel better and we can see belly pooping out.. This is a period of rapid fetal growth, leading to an increase in maternal nutrition needs of about 300 calories per day.The second trimester also may be a good time to begin to focus on DHA( omega-3) intake either from foods (such as salmon or other fatty fishes,flaxseeds,chia seeds,walnuts daily) or a DHA supplement.
THIRD TRIMESTER- By the end of the third trimester, total weight gain should be about 25–35 pounds for most women .The third trimester is devoted to putting on weight in the growing fetus, and subsequently you might also see your most rapid weight gain in the final weeks of pregnancy. During this trimester it is especially important to consume carbohydrates regularly throughout the day to provide an adequate supply of glucose to the fetus.
|Nutrient||Additional daily requirements for pregnant women|
|calories||300 (in the second and third trimesters)|
|folate (folic acid)||400 mcg|
- (B9)FOLIC ACID– important task for to be mommy is remembering to take a prenatal vitamin every day, a prenatal vitamin should contain at least 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid. Adequate intake of folic acid prevents about 60% of neural-tube defects.Green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts are good sources of folic acid.
- Dark green leafy vegetables -palak ,methi,mustard green(sarso),cabbage
- Fortified orange juice ,oranges
- Enriched or whole-grain breads
- Moong ,green gram dal,pulses,beans and lentil curries, Supplements or fortified foods
- IRON-Iron is another important component of any prenatal vitamin.Bioavailability of plant iron is less, Commonly consumed plant based diets provide around 18mg of iron as against recommended intake of 30mg per day. Therefore consume iron rich food with vitamin C, which increases iron absorption.Vitamin C – rich fruits like gooseberries (Amla), guava and oranges,kiwi improve iron absorption from plant foods. Beverages like tea bind dietary iron and make it unavailable. Hence, they should be avoided before during or soon after a meal.
- SOURCES OF IRON- Green leafy vegetables, Ragi, bajri, prunes,chana, rajma,fortified whole grains.Include a source of vitamin C (e.g. bell peppers, tomatoes, citrus fruits) with meals to increase iron absorption.
- CALCIUM-Calcium is another important nutrient throughout pregnancy. The developing fetus builds its bones through available calcium in the maternal bloodstream. If calcium intake is not adequate, to be mom bone strength is at risk.
- SOURCES- milk and milk products
- Sesame seeds,figs
- Tofu,Dark leafy vegetables -spinach,chana(bengal gram dal),rajma,amaranth
PROTEIN– It help in the development and growth of the fetus’s vital organs.Protein is critical for ensuring the proper growth of fetal tissue, including the brain. It also helps with breast and uterine tissue growth during pregnancy. Good sources of protein will keep you feeling fuller longer, lessening the need to eat extra, empty calories. It will also help you gain weight in the form of lean muscle rather than just fat. It’s also common for women to develop gestational diabetes. Eating a diet rich in protein helps to stabilize blood sugar levels.Dal,pulses,milk products,milk,tofu,soybean are good sources of protein.
VITAMIN D-Vitamin D invests in the well-being of your baby by supporting healthy bone development. Deficiency with vitamin D affects the absorption of calcium in bone and is also associated with preeclampsia When supplementing, your choices will be between two forms of vitamin D. Ergocalciferol(D2) is the vegetarian form of vitamin D and cholecalciferol D3 is the animal-sourced form, (D3) the most biologically active form of vitamin D found in humans and animals.
SOURCES- Fortified foods that contain notable levels of vitamin D include cow’s milk,cereal,grain products,naturally occurring vitamin D includes sunlight, Fish, egg yolk.
- To be mommy should choose foods rich in fibre (around 25 g/1000 kcal) like whole grain cereals, pulses and vegetables, to avoid constipation. Take plenty of fluids including 8-12 glasses of water per day.
- Excess intake of beverages containing caffeine like coffee and tea adversely affect fetal growth and hence, that a caffeine intake of more than 200 milligrams (mg) per day during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage should be avoided.
SOME HEALTHY INDIAN OPTIONS-
BUTTERMILK( chaas)- relieves heartburn and provides hydration
COCONUT WATER- helpful in first trimester to replenish electrolyte due to vomiting.
Banana-good amount of fibre easy snack option and also provides potassium to relieve pregnancy induced hypertension
Beet raita/salad- Good source of iron, helps in treating anemia( due to increase in blood volume)
Sesame peanut laddoo( very good source of protein ,calcium and fibre)
palak/methi paratha-a very good source of folate and fibre.
Palak dal and rice- provides all the essential amino acids(protein) and fibre packed meal.
Fresh homemade lemonade-Provides electrolyte balance,hydration relieves nausea and heartburn.
Tomatoes and oranges sprout salad-a very good source of vit C and protein, Vit C which helps in better absorption of Iron and Vit c has Antioxidant lycopene improves immunity. Sprouts provides helps in baby growth.
BE SMART- It is less about increasing the total number of calories during pregnancy than it is about increasing the quality and nutrient density of the extra calories with fruits, vegetables, whole grains,pulses and high-calcium foods during the entire gestation period.Folic acid, calcium and iron have long been considered the holy trinity of prenatal wellness. Take prenatal supplements during pregnancy and continue the same during lactation.Always remember to talk to your doctor before making major changes to your diet, and consult with him or her about what is best for you.